Read about different varieties of pasture, including perennial ryegrass, annual and short term ryegrass, winter cereals, and perennial legumes.
Perennial ryegrass pastures are the mainstay of pasture-based dairy farming in southern Australia.
Perennial In most southern Australian dairy farming environments, perennial ryegrass pastures can remain productive for at least four years.
Perennial characteristics significantly lower the cost of production and in a dryland environment, permit growth with minimal intervention as soon as soil moisture allows.
Grows all year - if there is sufficient soil moisture, perennial ryegrass will grow at most times of the year in southern Australia. During the autumn break or when there are significant summer rains an established perennial ryegrass sward can respond almost immediately.
High nutritive value well-managed perennial ryegrass provides high-quality feed of at least 11 megajoules (MJ) of estimated ME per kg of DM for most of the year and rarely below 10 MJ / kg DM. Similarly, crude protein (CP) levels rarely drop below 18-20% DM, except under nutritional or water stress. Overall, perennial ryegrass has better nutritive value than most temperate pasture species.
Minimal disease threat - There are few diseases of perennial ryegrass that significantly affect its productivity or longevity. Ryegrass can be susceptible to fungal rust (also known as crown rust). These types of diseases reduce ryegrass performance but don't usually threaten plant survival.
Minimal pest threat - Few pests can undermine perennial ryegrass performance in Australia. The red headed cockchafer can affect the viability of ryegrass stands, particularly if pasture is not managed to develop and maintain a high volume of roots. In Tasmania, the corbies can have a major impact on perennial ryegrass performance. As with most plants, ryegrass seedlings are vulnerable to the likes of red legged earth mite and lucerne flea during establishment. Although these pests can reduce ryegrass density or growth rates, they generally do not completely destroy the sward.
Ideal for grazing - Perennial ryegrass thrives under good grazing management. Its nutritional qualities are also more forgiving of temporary changes in grazing practices, such as delayed grazing, than other perennial species.
Minimal animal health issues - Recommended soil fertility and fertiliser programs induce few animal health issues with perennial ryegrass. Most can be managed with basic knowledge of ruminant nutrition.
Surpluses can be conserved - As well as being ideally suited to grazing, perennial ryegrass can be conserved for high-quality silage.
Seedling vigour - Ryegrass seedlings have excellent vigour and are relatively quick and easy to establish compared with other perennial pastures.
Broadleaf weed control - Most broadleaf weeds are easily controlled using a selective broadleaf herbicide with minimal impact on ryegrass growth rates. Body of knowledge - The farming community, researchers and service providers know a lot about perennial ryegrass management. See the accompanying factsheets for more information.
Shallow roots - Perennial ryegrass is relatively shallow rooted with almost 75% of the total root mass in the top 10 cm (see Figure 1). Perennial ryegrass is not able to access moisture at depth in the soil, for example where moisture has accumulated at depth over winter, where there are relatively shallow water tables or from irrigation. The shallow root system of perennial ryegrass has been linked to its poor persistence in summer-dry environments.
Low temperature ceiling - While perennial ryegrass performs well at low temperatures, it has a relatively low temperature ceiling compared to other perennial grasses. Beyond the ceiling, growth rates decrease significantly, causing plants to become dormant and possibly die.
Poor summer growth - The combination of shallow roots and a relatively low temperature ceiling means that perennial ryegrass cannot consistently provide significant amounts of quality feed during the hot/dry summer months in southern Australia.
Limited winter growth - The winter production of perennial ryegrass has improved significantly in recent years with a better understanding of rotations, nitrogen use, post-grazing residuals plus more winter-active cultivars. However, growth rates are limited by temperature and sunlight hours. Short rotation ryegrass and winter cereals have a higher potential for winter growth than perennial ryegrass, yet the growth of perennial ryegrass through the winter period tends to be of excellent quality.
Limited ability to defer grazing or cutting - Perennial ryegrass does not store well as a standing sward. There is limited ability to graze or cut a high-quality perennial ryegrass pasture once the ideal stage for grazing has passed.
Tolerance to waterlogging - Although perennial ryegrass can tolerate short periods of waterlogging, if these conditions persist, the lack of oxygen in the root zone will reduce production, and, in extreme cases, cause plant death.
Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats for the use of perennial ryegrass on southern Australian dairy farms (PDF, 1.3MB)
Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) pastures have been, and will continue to be, the mainstay of pasture-based dairy farming in southern Australia in the foreseeable future. The 3030 Project asked the question: If the productive ceiling of perennial ryegrass has been reached what alternatives are available to lift home-grown forage consumption?
The 3030 Project has explored forage alternatives but has also examined perennial ryegrass to gain a better understanding of why it is the cornerstone of pasture-based systems in southern Australia.
This information sheet analyses the key features of perennial ryegrass using a SWOT approach (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats).
Perennial ryegrass management VII pasture renovation (PDF, 827KB)
Decision process leading to the renovation or over-sowing of perennial ryegrass pastures on southern Australian dairy farms. The focus of this factsheet is on:
1. Monitoring and assessment of pasture stands.
2. Decision criteria to choose renovation or an alternative.
4. Full renovation.
Annual ryegrass is usually chosen where post-spring growing conditions are expected to be limiting.
The aim of using annual ryegrass is to maximise growth rates while there is still sufficient soil moisture.
Similarly, annual ryegrass is often used when a combination of low summer rainfall and soil type don't allow a stand of perennial ryegrass to be maintained all year round.
In this way, annual ryegrass is often the choice as a crop species to maximise pasture production for a less than year. It can be grown as either a pure stand or in combination with other crops, such as regrowth Brassicas.
Short rotation ryegrass is usually chosen by dairy farmers under similar circumstances to annual ryegrass.
Differences between annual ryegrass sand short rotation ryegrass
The main differences are:
Contents: Annual ryegrass (ARG) is usually chosen where post-spring growing conditions are expected to be limiting. The aim of using ARG is to maximise growth rates while there is still sufficient soil moisture. Similarly, ARG is often used when a combination of low summer rainfall and soil type do not allow a stand of perennial ryegrass to be maintained all year round. In this way, ARG is often the choice as a crop species to maximise pasture production for a less than 12-month period. It can be grown as either a pure stand or in combination with other crops, such as regrowth Brassicas.
Short rotation ryegrass is usually chosen by dairy farmers under similar circumstances to ARG. The main difference is that SRG could be more suitable where there is potential for reasonable levels of growth from late spring/early summer rainfall.
Winter growth rates of SRG cultivars are normally not as good as ARG. However, they have the potential to provide significant growth through the first summer and well into the second and third years.
Tall fescue has had limited adoption by Australian dairy farmers in the past because of older cultivars, and issues of low nutritive value and palatability. However, with new cultivars and a better understanding of its management, dairy farmers in southern Australian should reassess the potential of tall fescue.
The 3030 Project undertook research into how new cultivars of summer-active tall fescue might complement perennial ryegrass in terms of production and adaptation to stressful environments.
Tall fescue (PDF, 1.3MB)
The role of tall fescue (Festuca arundinaceae) in southern Australian dairy systems was investigated as part of the 3030 Project. The objective was to identify how it could complement perennial ryegrass in terms of production and adaptation to stressful environments.
The low rate of adoption of tall fescue by dairy farmers in the past has been associated with older cultivars and issues of low nutritive value and palatability. However, with new cultivars and a better understanding of its management, dairy farmers in southern Australian should re-assess its potential.
This factsheet relates to new cultivars of summer-active tall fescue.
Reduced soil moisture and higher temperature in summer not only cause a decline in the growth of perennial ryegrass but also reduce its nutritional value.
Perennial legumes like red clover and lucerne are more adapted to grow under drought conditions than most perennial grasses. In these species, nutritional value is less affected in summer than perennial ryegrass.
Benefits of feeding legumes compared to pure grass-based diets include:
These responses are usually due to the higher DM intake of cows fed legumes and the higher nutritional value of the legumes.
Perennial legumes can be grown as a pure crop to be grazed through summer during part of the day, or sown as companion species of grasses.
Perennial legumes: Lucerne, red and white clover (PDF, 1.4MB)
This factsheet discusses some of the 3030 Project experiences with perennial legumes on plots, farmlets and partner farm studies, and highlights some key aspects of their potential role in dairy farm systems of southern Australia. It covers only the perennial legume species that have been used in 3030 Project studies: Lucerne (Medicago sativa), red clover (Trifolium pratense) and white clover (Trifolium repens).
Lucerne is a drought-tolerant option to provide feed in summer and adapts well to grazing conditions under the right management.
Red clover and white clover perform best when combined with perennial grasses or herbs to increase summer feed production and quality.
All perennial legumes tend to increase nutritive value and milk production response of grass-based diets.
Bloat risks are important and should be considered but they can be managed. Feed allocation is a key factor to reduce the risk.
Lucerne, red clover and white clover all require soils with good fertility to perform and lucerne, in particular, requires well-drained soils.